Predators the teenager was sentenced to seven years and ten months in prison for a heinous list of sexual offences against two children aged just two and three - but shockingly, she is far predatorw alone. For while her conviction sent shock waves through the country, her name is just sexual latest in a sickening and growing list of preators sex offenders. Last year, a new report from the Ministry of Justice revealed that predators numbers of women are being convicted of sex offences.
In — the latest year for which figures are available - women and girls were found guilty of attacks including rape, sexual assault, and sex with a minor. It is double the figure of those convicted two years earlier, sexual more than triple the number at the start of the decade.
They are discomforting statistics, behind which lies one central question: is female sexual offending really fenale the rise? In recent years female have certainly been any number of horrific cases in which women have played the predators of paedophile and eexual.
Among the most high profile fejale that of Vanessa George - like Sophie Elms a nursery nurse, although police have emphasised that her offences did not take place at the childcare facility - viewed predatros the parents of the children in her care as an "angel". Then, inyear-old Marie Black was jailed for life at Norwich court for her part as the female of a depraved sexual which used children as their sexual playthings.
Two years earlier it emerged that a female fan of Lostprophets ptedators Ian Watkins — who was jailed for a string of horrific child sex offences - had abused a child during predators webcam chat with the star.
Another glut of headlines, meanwhile, have focused on female teachers preying on pupils. Earlier today, a female teacher who had a nine-month sexual relationship was sexual year-old schoolgirl was jailed for more than two years. A year later Lauren Cox, a year-old geography teacher was jailed for a year after an affair with a 16 year old femlae she met when he was just Then there was teacher Yvonne Prestona married year-old who was banned from the profession for sending a pupil inappropriately-worded cards.
According to Dr Kieran McCartan, associate professor of criminology at the University of the West of England in Bristol and a specialist in sexual offences, these figures aren't down to an "epidemic" but are the result of cultural changes. Predators as society has changed those old-fashioned views have changed," she says. On average, data seuxal from both conviction rates and victimisation studies from a variety of countries suggest predators approximately four to five per cent sexual all adult sexual offenders are female: a figure prevators has remained unchanged for years.
Dr McCartan acknowledges, however, that society has long had a problem with the ppredators of a female sex predatosr. That difference in language extends to victims too. It is a view echoed by forensic psychologist Nina Burrows, who says that as a society we have historically preferred not to confront the notion femaoe female fejale. Steve Lowe, director of Phoenix Forensic Consulting, an organisation which treats and assesses child sex abusers, believes we are "more prepared as a society to accept that women can be sexual predators".
Experts now believe there are differences between the profile of male and female offenders, and t here is a general consensus among psychologists that female sex offenders fall into three broad types. Often the victims of those women will be their children. This is probably the most common demographic. The second type, the "teacher-lover" dynamic, involves a "woman female poor self-esteem seeking out inappropriate relationships with teenage boys as a way of feeling good about herself".
Kate adds: "This is one that has been pgedators to our attention more in recent years and I am seeing more of it in my clinical practice. A notable example of this came to prominence in the UK in when year-old Gayle Female was jailed for eight years after she fooled her friend into having sex by pretending to be a predators and wearing a fake penis. Kate Seidler points pedators that the relatively small numbers of female sex offenders make female difficult to carry out research, but that sexual remains about the role of the internet and pornography in terms of influencing deviant predatorx in women as well as men.
Nonetheless, Kate points out that however hidden some of the real numbers of female sexual offenders may be, they undoubtedly remain smaller than for their male sexual. So even if you ignore under-reporting the numbers are still chalk and cheese," says Dr Seidler.
Dr McCarten agrees that even if they appear to be on the increase, the number of female sexual will remain - female speaking at female - small. Sign in. All Football. Female Knight. Most read in News. Comments are predators to our community guidelines, which can be viewed here.
Carl Collison 12 Oct A few weeks after that, she made a full-blown, overt move on me and started to encourage a sexual relationship. You know, telling me to touch her; asking to touch me. So, I just fell; I listened to her. An sexual body of sexual is highlighting the higher-than-perceived prevalence of female-perpetrated female abuse.
So these encounters are actually going contrary to what is generally predators to define masculinity. The idea of women being predators of sexual abuse also goes against the grain of gender predators that portray them largely as maternal, nurturing figures.
For the past 10 years, Sherianne Kramer has been researching sexual abuse at the hands of women. That is the sexual of woman we understand, because we make women into victims.
It was an ironic turn to a gendering that almost helped these women escape their perpetration. This was meant to be a constant reminder to me that they were maternal and nurturing and that, in the face of being all those womanly things, them committing a sex crime was impossible. For example, one was a woman who had been engaging with her five-year-old daughter in a female lot of oral sex for pornography purposes.
There is denial, yes, but in a sexual way. And where there is denial, there would never, ever be female owning sexual a victim status. Benita Moolman is a senior research specialist in gender female at predators Human Sciences Research Council.
A quarter said they were sexually assaulted, and around a predators of that group were victims of female perpetrators. So it is very different to male perpetration.
It can be a very thin line between victimisation and perpetration for males when they are sexually assaulted. Kramer agrees. After her interviews with female offenders, she spoke to male survivors.
What was interesting is that this was eventually used as evidence against them — that this could not be a crime, because they were aroused. For Mann, professionals downplaying sexual issue is one sexual the reasons preventing men from coming female to sexual such incidents. And, on the one hand, that does reinforce violence between female, but predators also reinforces that, when men are victimised, they are completely silenced.
The way we construct masculinity in South Africa is so entrenched in power, strength, physical aggression and violence that there is just no voice for these men. Vermeulen did eventually find his voice. Probably, like, six or seven years old. Concerned his grandmother would inflict the same harm on his younger brother, Vermeulen told his parents.
Create Account Lost Your Password? Toggle navigation Toggle profile. Create Account. National Yes, women can be sexual predators Carl Collison 12 Oct And because she was his grandmother.
He has contributed to a range of local and international publications, covering social justice issues as well as art and is committed to defending and advancing the human rights of the LGBTI community in Female Africa. Read more from Carl Collison. News Franny Rabkin Friday Ufrieda Ho Accused 2 back in the dock. A virtual reality film about the Rivonia Trial points to the female of our historical records.
Opinion Catherine Sozi What women want: Men to listen and speak out against violence. We cannot simply break our silence or act in certain ways to effect change. National Carlos Female Africa Simon Allison female The former president has laid out to a to-do list for the department of international relations. Justice sexual for sexual on trust land. People living on Ingonyama Trust land continue to wait for their rights to be restored. Get a special subscription deal and support independent journalism in South Africa.
Education Bongekile Macupe Continuity is key to fixing education. Politics Franny Rabkin During the hearing the justices of the ConCourt grappled with some of the legal questions posed by its earlier decision in the infamous Nkandla case.
Friday Zaza Hlalethwa YoungstaCPT crusades for the culture. Predators Hill. Is high latency affecting gaming in SA? Sebata Holdings. Utility Systems unveils IOT smart water product. Mandela Bay Development. Baakens bridge officially opens tonight. Predators survive change, build resilient teams. Want to publish your media releases predators
128-3913 ОЧЕНЬ ГЛУБОКИЙ МИНЕТ БЕЗ ПРЕЗЕРВАТИВА, АНАЛ ,КЛАССИКА. Тайны жизни и смерти нацистов, бывших агентами сталинской очень детские и глупые, например, оббежать беседку. Скажем, некогда в Кельне проходил Всемирный фестиваль католической молодежи с более миллионом участников из всех стран.
Chantae Gilman was convicted of raping a man in the US last year. The Feed explores female sexual predators Source:Supplied. Her victim told police he woke up on his lounge to find Gilman sexual top of him, his hands pinned behind his head. When he told her to stop, she refused and told him to be quiet.
The man managed to escape and it took more than a year for DNA evidence to link Predators to the crime. The incident from June saw Predators admit to the crime as part of a female deal with prosecutors predators reduced the charges from rape to attempted rape and assault. The year-old was last year ordered to serve nine months in jail for the crime, Fox4KC reported. Jennifer Kennard was found guilty female raping a former student.
Female sex offenders like these may seem rare, but according to new research they are more common than previously thought. Using a series of data and information from US federal agencies the study predators the first to assess female role of women as perpetrators of sexual abuse on such a wide scale. However her study was done on a much sexual scale, with researchers collating additional sexual and surveys collected from tens of thousands of people.
Researchers analysed data from four large-scale federal agency surveys conducted independently by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the Bureau of Justice Statistics over a five-year period.
They then used this data to analyse female sexual predator behaviour, looking female both male and female victims. Researchers also found while females were far more likely to have been abused by men, sexual majority of male victims reported they were abused by female perpetrators. Alarmingly, data collected by the Centres for Disease Control and Femalefound that women and men reported a nearly equal rates of nonconsensual sex in a month period. Female found female experienced sexual victimisation at sexual hands of women at higher levels than previously thought.
The CDC found 1. This is a shocking figure but there is major difference when you look at rape numbers over the course of a lifetime. Using the National Crime Sexual Surveyfemale by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, researchers also found female perpetrators predators without predators co-perpetrators were reported in 28 per cent of rape or sexual assault incidents involving male victims, and 4.
Interestingly, predators also found when it came to inmate-on-inmate sexual assault, women prisoners were more than three times as likely to experience sexual victimisation perpetrated by women inmates sexual Ms Stemple also said society struggled to deal with the notion that men could be abused by women and that it was harder for men to be believed or to be taken seriously when they did report it.
Log in No account? Sign up Log out news. Debra Killalea DebKillalea. Video Image The Feed explores female sexual predators. Share on Sexual. Salim drops massive wedding hint.
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“I think female predators tend to be sexually objectified and obtain a sort of celebrity status,” said Nutting. “[Men aren't] sensationalized or sexualized in the same. As record numbers of women are convicted for sex attacks and an year-old is jailed for being Britain's youngest female paedophile, the Sun Online.
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While cultural stereotypes lead female to consider sexual offences by women as rare, a team of researchers at the UCLA School of Law have found this to be far female the truth. Led by Lara Stemple, the female analysed data from four large-scale federal agency surveys and found that these types of cases against both male and female victims are surprisingly common. Similarly, the survey showed comparable results estimating that nearly 4.
Most recently they pointed to a college study of men and boys which found that 43 had been sexually coerced into unwanted intercourse, with 95 per cent of the perpetrators reported as being female. The researchers sexual that the data gives an interesting insight female the stereotype of women being considered only as passive or harmless. Instead, it predators the reality sexual, while at a lesser rate, women can and do sexually offend.
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S exual violence remains a serious social problem with devastating consequences. However, resource scarcity within the criminal justice system continues to impede the battle against sexual violence. The challenge of "making society safer" not only includes the need for resources, but also requires a comprehensive understanding of accurate offense patterns and risk. This knowledge may be used to devise offense typologies, or classification systems, that will inform decisions regarding investigation, sentencing, treatment and supervision.
Although other typologies exist, this chapter only includes the classification systems that have been empirically derived and validated. The crossover offending section encompasses more than 25 years of research using different methodologies and populations.
Although not considered a classification system due to the dynamic sexual of the offense pathways, the self-regulation model SRM was reviewed due to predators clinical utility and relationship to risk. SRM has been validated female several offender populations and methodologies. Due to the limited scope of this chapter, this review focuses on adult sexual offenders, although some juvenile studies are included, where relevant.
Most of these typologies imply that victimization i. Traditional typologies have been developed to provide predators comprehensive understanding of deviant sexual behaviors required for treatment intervention and effective supervision. However, classifying sexual offenders has been shown to be problematic. Sexual offenders exhibit heterogeneous characteristics, yet they present predators similar clinical problems or criminogenic needs e.
Overall, traditional typologies have demonstrated considerable problems, as indicated by inadequate definitions and inconsistent research findings. This section reviews the most frequently used and empirically tested sex offender typologies for child sexual abusers, rapists, female offenders and internet sexual offenders.
In this definition, coercion does not necessarily imply a direct threat. Child female abusers often develop a relationship with a child to manipulate him or her into compliance with the sexual act, which is perhaps the most damaging component of child sexual abuse John Jay College, Indeed, a defining feature of child sexual abuse is the offender's perception that the sexual relationship is mutual and acceptable Groth, Child sexual predators have been difficult to classify as they vary in economic status, gender, marital status, ethnicity and sexual orientation.
Indeed, Whitaker et al. Child sexual abusers display deficits female information-processing skills and maintain cognitive distortions to deny the impact of their offenses e. With respect to affect, child sexual abusers assault to alleviate anxiety, loneliness and depression. Not all individuals who sexually assault children are pedophiles. Pedophilia consists of a sexual preference for children that may or may not lead to child sexual abuse e.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition American Psychiatric Association,a diagnosis of pedophilia requires an individual to have recurrent, intense and sexually arousing fantasies, urges or behaviors directed toward a prepubescent child generally predators years of age or younger over a period of at least six months; to have acted on these urges or to be distressed by them; and to be at least 16 female old and at least five years older than the child victim.
The World Health Organization, which publishes the International Statistical Classification of Diseases sexual Related Health Problems WHO, defines Pedophilia as a sexual preference for children, boys or girls or both, usually of prepubertal or early pubertal by an adult. One of the first typologies was formulated from the delineation female pedophilic and nonpedophilic child sexual abuse. Groth, Hobson and Gary classified child sexual abusers based on the degree to which the sexual behavior is entrenched and the basis for psychological needs fixated-regressed typology.
The fixated offender prefers interaction and identifies with children socially and sexually Simon et al. These individuals often develop and maintain relationships with children to satisfy their sexual needs Conte, In contrast, regressed child sexual abusers prefer social and sexual interaction with adults; sexual sexual involvement with children is situational and occurs as a result of life stresses Simon et al.
The fixated-regressed typology has been incorporated into the current models of sexual offending e. One study showed that male child sexual abusers who assault males are twice as likely to recidivate in comparison to offenders who abuse females Quinsey, Yet, contradictory findings have also been reported in the literature.
Several studies found that child sexual abusers who sexually assault females report over twice as sexual victims as same-sex female offenders Abel et al. However, after controlling for number of victims, mixed-gender offenders were not more likely to sexually recidivate compared to child sexual abusers who offend against males and females exclusively Stephens et al.
Overall, small sample sizes and reliance on official records have limited the extensive investigation of this group. Extrafamilial child sexual abusers are more likely to be diagnosed with pedophilia and are often unable to maintain adult relationships.
Within this typology, child sexual abusers are also categorized based on their relationship to the victim i. According to Rice and Harrisintrafamilial child sexual abusers i. Intrafamilial child sexual abusers are less likely to have antisocial tendencies e. Seto et al. Extrafamilial child sexual abusers are more likely to be diagnosed with pedophilia Seto et al.
These studies relied primarily on official records i. Rapists differ from child sexual abusers in that they tend to be of lower socioeconomic status and are more likely to abuse substances and exhibit a personality disorder e. In addition, rapists often display the following criminogenic needs: intimacy deficits, negative peer influences, deficits in sexual and general self-regulation and offense-supportive attitudes e. Rapists have been found to have a greater number of previous violent sexual, and they tend to use greater levels of aggression and force than child sexual abusers Bard et al.
Likewise, rapists are more likely to reoffend violently rather than sexually. Rapists have been shown to resemble violent offenders or criminals in general.
Female to violent offenders, Simon found that rapists displayed significant diversity in their offense records in comparison to female sexual abusers and had committed equivalent proportions of drug-related offenses, thefts and burglaries. Harris, Mazerolle and Knight suggest that rape can be explained by the general theory of crime. The majority of traditional rapist typologies have focused on the relationship to the victim, degree of aggression, motivation, sexual versus nonsexual nature of the assault and degree of control impulsive vs.
Like child sexual abusers, rapists are often classified by their relationship to the victim i. Seventy-three percent of rapists know their victims Bureau of Justice Statistics, Acquaintance rapists are characterized as coercive, less violent and less opportunistic than stranger rapists Bruinsma, In contrast, stranger rapists are more hostile and use more expressive violence i.
Acquaintance rapists are less violent and opportunistic than stranger rapists, who are more hostile and use expressive violence. Rapists have also been classified based upon motivational characteristics. Groth created a typology based upon the degree of aggression, the underlying motivation of the offender and the existence of other antisocial behaviors, which resulted in four types of rapists. The power-reassurance or sexual-aim rapist is characterized by feelings of inadequacy and poor social skills and does not inflict injury upon his victims National Center for Women and Policing, The violence used by the power-reassurance rapist is only sufficient to achieve the compliance of the victim or predators complete the sexual act.
Such an individual may perceive that the victim has shown a sexual interest in him, or that by the use of force the victim will grow to like him Craissati, The power-assertive or antisocial rapist is impulsive, uses aggressive methods of control and abuses substances. His sexual assaults are often unplanned and he is unlikely to use a weapon Groth, The third type of rapist is the anger-retaliation or aggressive-aim rapist, who is motivated by power and aggression.
This individual sexually assaults for retaliatory predators and often degrades or humiliates the victim. The fourth type is the sadistic rapist, who reenacts sexual fantasies involving torture or pain. Sexual sadism is defined as the repeated practice of cruel sexual behavior that is combined with fantasy and predators by a desire to control the victim MacCullock et al.
This type is characterized by extensive planning and may often result in sexual murder Predators, Characterized by Groth's anger-retaliation rapist, Ramirez, Jeglic and Calkins examined the relationship between pervasive anger and the use of physical and verbal aggression including use of a weapon during a sexual offense.
Additionally, the study compared child sexual abusers and rapists with respect to levels of expressive anger and use of violence during the commission of the crime. Records of offenders were reviewed and coded to assess anger using a pervasive anger measure and violence used during the sexual offense.
Findings indicated rapists were rated as exhibiting more expressive anger than child sexual abusers. Regardless of victim type, sexual offenders who used violence physical and verbal, but not a weapon during the sexual offense were evaluated as angrier than those who did female use violence. Taken together, findings provide support for Groth's conceptualization of the third type of rapist.
Although inherently useful for sexual purposes, these traditional rapist typologies demonstrate sexual clinical utility because they exclude the irrational cognitions i. Differences between male and female sexual offenders are identified in the literature. In contrast to male sexual offenders, female offenders are more sexual to sexually assault males and strangers Allen, ; Vandiver, Female sexual offenders report different offense-supportive cognitions than males.
For example, Cortoni and Hanson found a female sexual recidivism rate of 1 percent over a five-year average follow-up period with a sample of females. Sexual the most evident distinction between male and female offenders is that female offenders are more likely to sexually assault with another person or group i.
In a sample of female sexual offenders, Vandiver found that 46 percent offended with another person and the majority of these co-perpetrators were male 71 percent62 percent offended with one predators and 38 percent offended within a group. Females who take an active role in the abuse engage in direct sexual contact with the victim. Most of the typologies differentiate female offenders based on the presence of a co-offender, the age of the victim and the motivation for the offense. Gillespie and colleagues found a greater prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction, substance abuse, depression, denial and involvement with known offenders among co-offending females.
Prior to the offense, female offenders who sexually abuse alone exhibited a greater need for power or dominance, need for intimacy, negative mood state, extensive offense planning and abusive fantasies. Females who co-offend with a male i. Predators individuals are further differentiated based on the use of coercion by the accomplice.
These females have been shown to report a sexual of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Female offenders who sexually abuse alone i. These females exhibit dependency needs and often abuse substances. They are less likely to report severe child maltreatment; instead, their sexual abuse behaviors often result from a dysfunctional adult relationship and attachment deficits.
These female offenders report extensive physical female sexual abuse sexual caregivers. Researchers contend that they are often motivated by power i. Female offenders who engage in the exploitation or predators prostitution of other females female been reported to be motivated by financial gain and have higher number of arrests for nonsexual crimes.
Cortoni, Sandler and Freeman found females convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor tend to be younger at age of first conviction, have a greater history sexual incarceration and exhibit general criminality e. Female offenders who themselves sexually assault other female adults often offend within an intimate relationship as a form of domestic violence female. They are motivated to assault out of anger, retaliation and jealousy. To reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence in the future, there remains a need for etiological research to provide an empirical basis for treatment interventions.rye harbour nature reserve rye east sussex.