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Representations about subjects, sexualities and prevention methods on posters from 2013 to 2017










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What are the documents and requirements to Ask for advice on Youth health and sexuality?

Opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality: Brazilian national research, Instituto de Psicologia. Rio de janeiro, RJ, Brasil. An analysis of the attitudes regarding sexual initiation and sexual education of teenagers, considering gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, color, geographic region and opinion on fidelity, homosexuality, and masturbation. The results were contrasted with a similar survey carried out inwhen possible.

As inthe majority was in favor of sexual initiation after marriage saude Fidelity remained an almost unanimous value and there was an increase, inin the proportion of those in favor of sexual initiation after marriage, and in the rate of acceptance of masturbation and homosexuality compared to the survey.

The younger saude tend to be more tolerant and equalitarian. Opinions in favor of free access to preservatives at school clash with the slower results obtained in fighting the stigma and discriminating against homosexual minorities. The design of laical policies on sexuality allow for the dialog across different perspectives. Descriptors: Sexuality. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Socioeconomic Factors. Population Studies in Public Health.

Cross-sectional studies. Attitudes toward sexuality and sexual morality have been considered important factors for normalizing and regulating what is acceptable or unacceptable as a practice in a country or community.

We have observed that the largest part of scientific literature on sexual normativity, including of Brazilian literature, is made up of qualitative studies on the social organization of sexuality and the sexual culture of certain regions or populations e. Studies available in international literature, which include analysis of opinions and attitudes toward sexual morality, usually assess the following categories: monogamy and fidelity, meanings of sex such as procreation, pleasure, love relationship or oral sex as sexual intercourseand the tolerance rate of certain practices premarital sex, homosexual intercourse, abortion, oral and anal sex, use of pornography.

These studies almost always show important differences when they compare answers provided by men and women, different generations, religions and regions of a country or continent.

There is some support for 8 the assumption that greater tolerance regarding sex before marriage, teenager sex, extramarital sex and sex between people of the same sex are indicators of a single dimension, which could explain a saude of sexual attitudes, such as greater or lower permissiveness in individuals or countries. However, the analysis of the differences among industrialized countries shows that countries which are more permissive concerning premarital sex are not as permissive in regard to extramarital sex.

A national saude carried out in the United States 7 suggested the existence of three groups, according to the meaning given to sexual life: sexual activity associated to pleasure; to intimacy and to love; or to procreation. Belonging to one of these groups explains a certain standing regarding approval and regulation of the sexoalidade of teenage, premarital, extramarital, and homosexual sexual practices.

Therefore, the goal of this paper is to present a descriptive analysis of the opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality norms in the Brazilian population. The survey was carried out on a sample of 5 men and women aged 16 to Using stratified multi-stage census tracts, households and individuals over 16 were randomly successively drawn in each microregion. The household surveys were based on the survey questionnaire, which was modified for the survey, ensuring comparability of questions that were repeated.

In this paper, the questions that focused on opinions regarding sexuality and sexual normativity are addressed. We designed double entry tables for sociodemographic variables gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, religion, color, marital status and geographic region of city of residence sexoalidade variables regarding attitudes toward socialization of the youngsters, meaning given to sexuality, opinions on fidelity, extramarital sex, sex between people of the same sex and masturbation.

Favorable opinions were defined as the total number of answers "I completely agree" and "I partially agree". Trained and supervised teams carried out the interviews in both surveys. The variables of the survey corresponding to the ones in the survey were tabulated, and identical and similar questions were grouped. To the questionnaire adopted inquestions on access to prevention and condoms at school were added.

There was also an attempt to establish possible differences between current normativity on sexuality of young men and women. The meaning of sexual life was obtained differently in the sexoalidade surveys. The effect of sociodemographic characteristics on the meaning of sexual life and on questions regarding sexuality saude individuals younger than 19 was submitted to inferential analysis to assess its relevance.

SPSS version According to Table 1the most frequently chosen answer given by Brazilian interviewees to the meaning of sexual life they most identify with was: "sex is evidence of love towards one's partner" The alternative "sex is important for having children and maintaining family life" was chosen by Table 1 shows that the distribution of the answers to meaning of sex does not indicate important differences between whites and blacks.

Interviewees living in the Northeastern region chose less frequently the alternatives that mentioned pleasure or love, and gave more frequent answers indicating that sex is associated to physical needs, family and children. In the Southern region of Brazil, there were more answers associating sex to pleasure. The higher the schooling and the family income, the more important sex was considered a source of pleasure, the less it was seen as having procreative function and the less it was considered evidence of love; the proportion of those who considered sex as a physical need remained stable.

When age groups were compared, the choices varied only between the age group, which, when compared to older individuals, had a tendency to value sex as a source of pleasure and saw it less as evidence of love. Among Christians, Catholics gave more importance to pleasure, however less than interviewees from African-Brazilian religions, in the 'other religion' category, and Kardecists.

To the latter, the importance of pleasure was close to the importance of love saude meaning of sex. In the survey, interviewees answered the question "What is the meaning of sex to you? In Table 2 we can see that among the opinions regarding socialization for the sexuality of the younger age bracket obtained inopinions favoring the beginning of sexual life after marriage prevailed: This difference in the proportion of people favoring virginity among women until after marriage was consistent across all categories of age, schooling, income, religion, gender, color or region.

The difference in morality concerning men and women was greater in the Northeastern region and among interviewees with lower schooling rates. Opinions favoring the beginning of sexual life only after marriage increased with age, and were less frequent among Kardecists, followers of African-Brazilian religions and among those declaring not having a religion.

It has increased among Catholics and was more frequent among Protestants. Among the Brazilians interviewed inthe statement agreeing with the need of marriage for the beginning of one's sexual life was chosen by Despite this apparent change in values, increased support of sexual initiation after marriage did not implicate lack of support to providing information saude youngsters on the use of condoms and contraception.

Sexoalidadealmost all interviewees were in favor that youngsters between 15 and 19 years of age were informed by their schools on contraceptive methods and about the use of condoms The majority of respondents were also in favor of facilitating access to condoms in health services Proportionally more women than men, and more whites than blacks, answered they completely or partially agreed with the statement "We should talk about sex with children under 15"; these answers prevailed among those with higher schooling rates, and among interviewees belonging to African-Brazilian religions, among Kardecists and those who declared not having a religion.

In the survey, the question "In your opinion, should we talk about sex to saude individuals under 15? There was a growth in approval given to male The proportion of those indicating tolerance towards masturbation in data not shown was higher among men, youngsters, whites, singles and separated, groups with higher income and schooling rates, and in the Southern and Southeastern regions; concerning religion, it was lower among Protestants, Pentecostals and members of other religions, and significantly higher among Kardecists and members of African-Brazilian religions.

The proportion of those indicating tolerance toward homosexual sexual relationships increased from 5. Favorable opinions regarding saude between men were similar among male and female respondents in In the period, favorable opinions increased in all age brackets, in all levels of income and in all levels of schooling, especially among those with higher education. The results of the present study mirror the opinion of Brazilians on sexual life and have implications on public policies in the field.

The data analyzed confirm that defining the normalization of sexuality based on a single axis e. The results of the survey, compared to the survey carried out inshowed a growth of tolerance toward masturbation and homosexual relations, in addition to greater importance given to fidelity and to initiating sexual life in the context of marriage.

The comparison of the two surveys must be interpreted carefully, due to small adjustments in the second design plan, which were necessary to meet the demographic changes that occurred in Brazil between and In addition, the majority of opinions favoring sexual education initiatives among youngsters, including saude access to condoms at school and at health units as supported by AIDS programs 10 in Brazil, confirm the difficulty in establishing a single dimension to explain the regulation of sexual life.

The present study sexoalidade that the normativity regarding sexual activity must be understood in the light of sexual culture and social organization of sexuality in the local level, and their interface with public policies. The great importance attached to maintaining virginity until marriage, for men and women, does not result in intolerance concerning talking about sex to individuals under 15; most interviewees in believed that it was adequate to provide information on contraception and condoms at school and at health services.

At the same time, these findings suggest the importance of including the topic of postponing the beginning of one's sexoalidade life, common among more educated youngsters, as an element to be considered in the education of teenagers on sexuality and in preventing sexually transmitted diseases; 11 the programs that include support to postponing the beginning of one's sexual life and the use of contraceptives do not result in a decrease in the use of condoms.

Fostering the right to information on contraception and access to condoms, an essentially governmental effort, contrasts with the staggering results in fighting stigma and prejudice against homosexual sexoalidade -especially by the National AIDS Program.

According to respondents, the increase in tolerance occurs firstly outside the home: friends have more liberal views than one's own; and the family, less. These results confirm that normative references regarding sexuality are produced by the social groups to which one belongs, and that they are strongly marked by social categories such as gender, age cohort, and especially, schooling and income.

In terms of religion, Christians chose, in general, alternatives more coherent with the traditional values of their beliefs; however, the majority of the Catholics interviewed support the use of condoms. Kardecists, followers of African-Brazilian religions and non-believers were more tolerant concerning less traditional practices.

It was found that normative references on sexuality are different when we compare what is expected of men to what is expected of women, sometimes even in different directions: female sexoalidade is more accepted. On the other hand, female virginity until marriage is more expected than male virginity.

Younger generations tend to be more tolerant and equalitarian. Population-based studies 5,8,9,12,14 that investigated sexual normativity in other countries confirmed the importance of subcultures and their specific features in defining what is expected of each gender and of sexual life. According to these studies, even in countries with similar religious profiles and social development rates, findings sexoalidade opinions are more favorable towards premarital sex in Australia than in England and in the United States, countries of a Protestant majority; homosexuality is more tolerated in Spain than in Italy, despite both countries being mainly Catholic.

Based on studies carried out in England, United Saude, Ireland, Germany, Sweden, and Poland, countries that have substantially different cultural and social and political traditions, Scott 14 found a significant increase in the acceptance of premarital sex, whereas disapproval rates for extramarital sex remain high; and a slow decrease in the acceptance of homosexuality.

Religion would be sexoalidade main force against a speedier and more substantial increase in tolerance towards homosexual practices. Although studies carried out in a number of countries in the fields of sexuality and health promotion have established that there is no direct and consistent association between what people think, approve of, and what they in fact do, 7 the analysis based on these databases and partial results should look for significant associations between the different beliefs and some of the indicators of relevant sexual practices, aiming at planning measures for preventing HIV in Brazil.

The social research that resulted in the targets agreed to by the United Nations for preventing and controlling HIV and AIDS 16 have systematically proven that the most successful normative context for promoting and ensuring certain rights, including the right to health, is a scenario that includes a dialog with the values of each group.

Therefore, we aim at ensuring saude scientific knowledge, which includes how to take care of oneself and how to prevent diseases, meets with knowledge that each individual produces throughout one's sexual life, which is always governed by one's personal values.

Ayres JR. Retratos da juventude brasileira. Rev Sexoalidade Publica. The accuracy of reported sensitive sexoalidade behaviour in Britain: exploring the extent of change Sex Transm Infect. The social organization of sexuality: sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Attitudes toward nonmarital sex in 24 countries. J Sex Res. Paiva V. Sexualidad, estigma y derechos humanos: desafios para el acesso a la salud en America Latina.

Attitudes towards sex in a representative sample of adults. Spencer B.

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At the emergence of the epidemic, it was a phenomenon seen by different social actors for the first time. Herzlich C, Pierret J. The construction on a social phenomenon: aids in French Press. Soc Sci Med.

Media-based representations and state-sponsored prevention campaigns are a crucial aspect of the epidemic and its meanings; among the pioneering analyzes related to this facet, Sontag 2 2. Sontag S. Illness as metaphor and AIDS and its metaphors. New York: Picador; Treichler P. AIDS, homophobia and biomedical discourse: an epidemic of signification. Cult Stud. Spink MJ. Cad Saude Publica. Critical research on prevention campaigns should also be highlighted from the perspective of communication 6 6.

Sex Salud Soc Rio J. Part of the national studies on AIDS prevention campaigns include materials produced and disseminated between and , focusing on the early days of the epidemic. Remarkable controversies were raised by the messages, their counterproductive effects even if unintentional , in the sense of reforming stigmas or contrary positions by some sectors of society, such as the Catholic Church 7 7.

Morais P, Amorim R. Tempo Cienc. Generally speaking, the analytical processes focused on language and discourse, pointing to aspects such as campaign discontinuity and the need to involve message-receiving groups in message formulation. Arraes GRA. Jardim LN, Perucchi J. Ex Aequo. Some papers investigate carnival campaigns, problematizing the monogamous ideal as a barrier to condom use 10 Marinho MB.

Interface Botucatu. Porto MP. Paradoxically, the analyses done with regard to the World Aids Day - December 1 st campaign have been less significant when compared to the contributions listed above.

Such campaigns have been characterized by their regularity and ability to mobilize discourses from international agencies and national agencies about directions of the response to the epidemic. In the realm of the DCCI campaigns, the poster is the media channel that reaches a more even distribution in the regions of Brazil 11 Campaigns generally aim to a variety of target populations and are based on promoting male condom use. More recently, the Carnival Campaign aimed mainly at young gay men, and the campaign aimed to -and made by- prostitutes, highlighting the autonomy and legitimacy of sex work, were the target of censorship.

Against the backdrop of the loss of visibility of gender and sexual orientation issues in global and national prevention policies 12 Seffner F, Parker R. This guideline has gradually introduced strategies such as Treatment as Prevention 13 However, in its original conception, CP proposes alternatives to maximize the protection of individuals and their partners, according to their individual possibilities and needs through biomedical, structural and behavioral actions duly articulated 16 Combination prevention: a deeper understanding of effective HIV prevention.

Considering the possible symbolic effects of this programmatic change, this study aimed to analyze the representations about sexuality and prevention on posters produced by DCCI for the December 1 st - World Aids Day - from to We examined 19 posters from five campaigns from December 1, and using descriptive and documentary content analysis. The documentary study seeks to broaden the understanding of objects whose understanding needs historical and sociocultural context 17 Rev Bras Hist Cienc Soc.

The documents are presented in the form of texts, images, sounds, signals, etc. Chizzotti A. The choice of posters as a unit of analysis was done due to the fact that we consider that the contents available are defined according to what they want to transmit as well as to the recipient they are aimed.

Moles A. O cartaz. Oudshoorn N. Clinical trials as a cultural niche in which to configure the gender identities of users: the case of male contraceptive development. In: Oudshoorn N, Pinch T, organizadores. How users matter: the co-construction of users and technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT; Therefore, there is a trove of meanings that require a sophisticated process of decoding and interpreting the representations of these materials 21 Kellner D. In: Silva TT, organizador.

The research procedures were developed in three stages. In the first one, the research identified those epidemiological bulletins available on the DCCI website during the period from to , in order to verify to what extent the campaigns from December 1 st are based on these documents.

The images analyzed in this article are under public domain, disseminated by the DCCI own website. We only selected those posters created for the December 1 st campaigns produced between , considering that in the agency launched the CP strategy.

In the third stage, we submitted the material to a pre-analysis aimed to verify the relationship between epidemiological trends and the campaigns of December 1 st. Following the proposal of Thiago, Russo and Camargo-Junior 22 DCCI made available on its website for the first time a December 1 st campaign in These campaigns followed UNAIDS recommendations between and , prioritizing children and adolescents and and men The main data contained in the Epidemiological Bulletins from to are shown in table 1 , an overview of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil in this century and the strategies to combat it.

In part of the campaigns , , , , and , the information released in the Epidemiological Bulletins guided the actions of the World AIDS Day. The focus is on women; highlights the relationship between poverty and AIDS, especially among black people. The and campaigns address young people years old and mature heterosexual adults over 50 years old respectively.

In , youth is again targeted in the campaigns, and especially gays aged In all of them, there is a clear direction towards any of the groups in which there was an increase in reported cases. The fight against racism, prejudice and discrimination marks the period under study permeating explicit campaign intentions. We may assume this to be the kick-off for what would be the next focus of campaigns the following year: the CP. In , the campaign seeks to reach different groups, including sex workers and young people, putting an emphasis on testing.

Considering that CP has guided almost all December 1 st campaigns in recent years, we will then focus on the representations about the subjects, sexualities and prevention methods at stake in the research corpus. In the first year of our time frame, DCCI opted for using posters that address different target populations: pregnant women, homosexual men, health practitioners, sex workers, and transvestites.

All these images were compiled in Figure 1. Take the AIDS test. Photo backdrops may vary depending on the subjects. Only the pregnant woman is in a domestic environment; a lighter set of shades appears in the photo, similar to the poster with the health practitioner in the workplace. These two posters showing subjects in interaction, propose as main theme the responsibility of the transmission of the virus when contacting another person, through vertical transmission, in the case of the pregnant woman, or sexual, in the case of homosexual partners.

These interactions lead us to the idea of self-surveillance, a displacement of the state as responsible for health procedures on the individual and the community for self-management of health 23 Ortega F, Zorzanelli R. At the same time, the message implies as an important requirement for establishing an affective-sexual relationship to know the serological status of the partners. In both interpretations, testing gains the space of an indispensable element of prevention.

In some way, the posters reinforce old stereotypes and moralisms about the subjects who do not fit the parameters of heteronormativity or monogamous life, linking them to potential illness and death. This device operates through public HIV prevention policies and results in control and normalization of affective and sexual relationships based on heteronormative patterns. Figure 1 suggests the incorporation of the Provider-Initiated HIV Counseling and Testing PICT strategy into the official preventive discourse, which consists of routine testing in health services, where the physician requests the examination, subject to user consent 25 World Health Organization.

Guidance on provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in health facilities. This strategy should be differentiated from Voluntary Counseling and Testing VCT , which materialized in Brazil through CTAs, where the spontaneous demand of users for testing predominates. In , the Ministry of Health highlights the 30 years of the fight against AIDS and reinforces the idea of prevention, not only through condoms, but also through testing and treatment in SUS.

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The article sought to analyze representations of sexuality and prevention on posters produced by the Department of Chronic Conditions Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections DCCI stemming from the combination prevention CP guidelines adopted in A descriptive and documental content analysis of posters relative to the World Aids Day December 1 st was carried out This suggests that the CP has been guiding the DCCI campaigns since its launch, as opposed to previous campaigns focusing on target populations and male condoms.

Aids representations are saude supported and maintained through different cultural forms, according to the social contexts in which they are built. At the emergence of the epidemic, it was a phenomenon seen by different social actors for the first time.

Herzlich C, Pierret J. The construction on a social phenomenon: aids in French Press. Sexoalidade Sci Med. Media-based representations and state-sponsored prevention campaigns are a crucial aspect of the epidemic and its meanings; among the pioneering analyzes related to this facet, Sontag 2 2. Sontag S. Illness as metaphor and AIDS and its metaphors. New York: Picador; Treichler P. AIDS, homophobia and biomedical discourse: an epidemic of signification.

Cult Stud. Spink MJ. Cad Saude Publica. Critical research on prevention campaigns should also be highlighted from the perspective of communication 6 6. Sex Salud Soc Rio J. Part of the national studies on AIDS prevention campaigns include materials produced and disseminated between andfocusing on the early days of the epidemic.

Remarkable controversies were saude by the messages, their counterproductive effects even if unintentionalin the sense of reforming stigmas or contrary positions by some sectors of society, such as the Catholic Church 7 7. Morais P, Amorim R. Tempo Cienc. Generally speaking, the analytical processes focused on language and discourse, pointing to aspects such as campaign discontinuity and the need to involve message-receiving groups in message formulation. Arraes GRA. Jardim LN, Perucchi J. Ex Aequo.

Some papers investigate carnival campaigns, problematizing the monogamous ideal as a barrier to condom use 10 Marinho MB. Interface Botucatu. Porto MP. Paradoxically, the analyses done with regard sexoalidade the World Aids Day - December 1 st campaign have been less significant when compared to the contributions listed above. Such campaigns have been characterized by their regularity and ability to mobilize discourses from international agencies and national agencies about directions of the response to the epidemic.

In the realm of the Sexoalidade campaigns, the poster is the media channel that reaches a more even distribution in the regions of Brazil 11 Campaigns generally aim to a variety of target populations and are based on promoting male condom use.

More recently, the Carnival Campaign aimed mainly at young gay men, and the campaign aimed to -and made by- prostitutes, highlighting the saude and legitimacy of sex work, sexoalidade the target of censorship. Against the backdrop of the loss of visibility of gender and sexual orientation issues in global and national prevention policies 12 Seffner F, Parker R.

This saude has gradually introduced strategies such as Treatment as Prevention 13 However, in its original conception, CP proposes alternatives to maximize the protection of individuals and their partners, according to their individual possibilities and needs through biomedical, structural and behavioral actions duly articulated 16 Combination prevention: a deeper understanding of effective HIV prevention.

Considering the possible symbolic effects of this programmatic change, this study aimed to analyze the representations about sexuality and prevention on posters produced by DCCI for the December 1 st - World Aids Day - from to We examined 19 posters from five campaigns from December 1, and using descriptive and documentary content analysis.

The documentary study seeks to broaden the understanding of objects whose understanding needs historical and sociocultural context 17 Rev Sexoalidade Hist Cienc Soc. The documents are presented in the form of texts, images, sounds, signals, etc. Chizzotti A. The choice saude posters as a unit of analysis was done due to the fact that we consider that the contents available are defined according to what they want to transmit as well as to the recipient they are aimed.

Moles A. O cartaz. Oudshoorn N. Clinical trials as a cultural niche in which sexoalidade configure the gender identities of users: the case of male contraceptive development. In: Oudshoorn N, Pinch T, organizadores.

How users matter: the co-construction of users and technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT; Therefore, there is a trove of meanings that require a sophisticated process of decoding and interpreting the representations of these materials 21 Kellner D. In: Silva TT, organizador. The research procedures were developed in three stages. In the first one, the sexoalidade identified those epidemiological bulletins available on the DCCI website during the period from toin order to verify to what extent the campaigns from December 1 st are based on these documents.

The images analyzed in this article are under public domain, disseminated by the DCCI own website. We only selected those posters created for the December 1 st campaigns produced betweenconsidering that in the agency launched the CP strategy. In the third saude, we submitted the material to a pre-analysis aimed to verify the relationship between epidemiological trends and the campaigns of December 1 st.

Following the proposal of Thiago, Russo and Camargo-Junior 22 DCCI made available on its website for the first time a December 1 st campaign in These campaigns followed UNAIDS recommendations between andprioritizing children and adolescents and and men The main data contained in the Epidemiological Bulletins from to are shown in table 1an overview of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil in this century and the strategies to combat it.

In part of the campaigns, andthe information released in the Epidemiological Bulletins guided the actions of the World AIDS Day. The focus is on women; highlights the relationship between poverty and AIDS, especially among black people. The and campaigns address young people years old and mature heterosexual adults over 50 years old respectively. Inyouth is again targeted in the campaigns, and especially gays aged In all of them, there is a clear direction towards any of the groups in which there was an increase in reported cases.

The fight against racism, prejudice and discrimination marks the period under study permeating explicit campaign intentions. We may assume this to be the kick-off for what would be the next focus of campaigns the following year: the CP. Inthe campaign seeks to reach different groups, including sex workers and young people, putting an emphasis on testing.

Considering that CP has guided almost all December 1 st campaigns in recent years, we will then focus on the representations about the subjects, sexualities and prevention methods at stake in the research corpus. In the first year of our time frame, DCCI opted for using posters that address different target populations: pregnant sexoalidade, homosexual men, health practitioners, sex workers, and transvestites. All these images were compiled in Figure 1. Take the AIDS test.

Photo backdrops may vary depending on the subjects. Only the pregnant woman is in a domestic environment; a lighter set of shades appears in the photo, similar to the poster with the health practitioner in the workplace. These two posters showing subjects in interaction, propose as main theme the responsibility of the transmission of the virus when contacting another person, through vertical transmission, in the case of the pregnant woman, or sexual, in the case of homosexual partners.

These interactions lead us to the idea of self-surveillance, a displacement of the state saude responsible for health procedures saude the individual and the community for self-management of health 23 Ortega F, Zorzanelli R.

At the same time, the message saude as an important requirement for establishing an affective-sexual relationship to know the serological status of the partners. In both interpretations, testing gains the space of an indispensable element of prevention. In some way, the posters reinforce old stereotypes and moralisms about the subjects who do not fit the parameters of heteronormativity or monogamous life, linking them to potential illness and death. This device operates through public HIV prevention policies and results in control and normalization of affective and sexual relationships based on heteronormative patterns.

Figure 1 suggests the incorporation of the Provider-Initiated HIV Counseling and Testing PICT strategy into the official preventive discourse, which consists of routine sexoalidade in health services, where the physician requests the examination, subject to user consent 25 World Health Organization.

Guidance on provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in health saude. This strategy should be differentiated from Voluntary Counseling and Testing VCTwhich materialized in Brazil through CTAs, where the spontaneous demand of users for testing predominates.

Inthe Ministry of Health highlights the 30 years of the fight against AIDS and reinforces the idea of prevention, not only through condoms, but also sexoalidade testing and treatment in SUS.

In spite of the various visual materials made for such a campaign, banners, magazine and Facebook ads, we only were able to locate one poster Figure 2. Thumbnail Figure 2 partiuteste Campaign The figure has as its central element a montage composed of people, male condoms, medicines and images of the HIV virus. Among the subjects portrayed are Cazuza and Renato Russo, famous musicians who died as a result of the infection.

Unlike in the previous year, sexual identities and practices are not at play in images. There are no explicit interactions, although there is action and movement.

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The promotion of sexual health is of daily importance to the medical agenda, which is why debate over the inclusion of sexuality in the curricula of medical schools is a sexoaldade theme in world literature sexoalidade medical education. The debate that followed the screenings allowed students to reflect on attitudes and skills related to sexual health. The Theoretical and Practical Course on Sexuality was made available to a sexoalidade of 25 students and used the practice of increasing awareness, providing sexoalidadd specific to the themes in each module in order to help deepen debate.

Student-centered approaches provided a favorable environment for zexoalidade listening and addressing of queries, the acquisition eaude knowledge, and the development of skills. As estudantes demonstraram maior constrangimento e timidez para falar sobre queixas sexuais durante o atendimento de homens, especialmente idosos. A maioria das vagas de ambos os cursos foi preenchida por estudantes do sexo feminino. Para esse treinamento foi utilizado o Modelo Plissit de abordagem das queixas sexuais saude Sexoa,idade estudantes que participaram de uma modalidade ou, especialmente, de ambos os cursos demonstraram maior desenvoltura durante os atendimentos.

World Health Organization. Measuring sexual health: conceptual and practical considerations and related indicators. Sexoalidade WHO; Acessoem: sajde mar. WHO regional strategy on sexual and reproductive health. World Association for Sexual Health. Sexual health for the millennium: a declaration and technical document.

Minneapolis: World Association for Sexual Health; Acesso em: 23 mar. Abdo CHN, org. Estudo da vida sexual do brasileiro. Sexuality education in Sexoalidade American medical schools: current status and future directions. J Sex Saude 1 : Salinas-Urbina AA. Esc Anna Nery ;17 1 Sexuality education in Brazilian medical schools.

J Sex Med ;11 5 Lesbian, gay, sexoalkdade, and transgender-related content in undergraduate medical education. JAMA ; 9 Rev BrasilEduc Med ; 37 2 Eardley I. A curriculum for sexual medicine? Sexoalidade Sex Med ;6 5 Education in sexual saude proceedings from the International Consultation in Sexual Medicine, J Sex Med ;7 10 Multidisciplinary Joint Committee on Saude Medicine.

New developments in education and training in sexual medicine. J Sex Med ;10 4 Acesso em sexoalidade mar. Acessoem 23 mar. Assalian P. Psychological and interpersonal dimensions of sexual function and dysfunction.

Arab J Urol;11 3 Leiblum SR. An established sexoakidade school human sexuality curriculum: description and evaluation. Sex RelationTher ;16 1 Medical school sexual health curriculum and training in the United States. J Natl Med Assoc ; 9 Assessing changes in medical student attitudes toward non-traditional human sexual behaviors using a confidential audience response system. Sex Education;10 1 Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and medical education. JAMA ; sexoalidade Wittenberg A, Gerber J.

Recommendations for improving sexual health curricula in medical schools: results from a two-arm study collecting data from patients and medical students. J Sex Med ;6 2 sexoxlidade Teaching and learning about sexuality in undergraduate medical education. MedEduc ; 36 5 Sexoalidade sexual history-taking curriculum for saude year medical students. Med Teach ;28 2 Review of an undergraduate medical school training programme saude human sexuality.

Med Teach ; 25 3 Sexual sexoalidade innovations in undergraduate medical education. Ethical aspects of sexual medicine. J Sex Med ;2 2 : Teaching seoxalidade history taking to medical students and examining r experience in one medical school saude a national survey.

Med Saude ;37 2 Alberto Madeiro. E-mail: madeiro uol. Todos os autores revisaram os argumentos finais. This is sexoaldiade Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, saude, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Saude on Demand Journal. ABSTRACT The promotion of sexual sade is of daily importance to the medical agenda, which is why debate over the inclusion of sexuality in the curricula of medical schools is a current theme in world literature on medical education.

Recebido: sexoalidade de Setembro de ; Aceito: 26 de Outubro de How to cite this article.

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sexoalidade e saude

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