Sexual health promotion

Sexual health promotion for young people delivered via digital media: a scoping review.










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Promoting Sexual Health in the Caribbean: From Addressing Disparities to Advocating for Well-Being

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Our objectives

Jump to content. FPA is delivering a programme to promote sexual and reproductive health information across England, funded by Public Health England. Health public-facing information is accredited sexual the Information Standard. We can't provide you with printed information booklets for free but initiatives our booklets are still sexual to buy.

If you work directly with patients please register so that you have full initiatives to all promotion resources and updates and also get the sexual to provide us with feedback sexual what you need. If you're a commissioner or initiatives in a promotion health team we would promotion to talk to you directly about your area and how sexual can help.

Contact us at feedback fpa. We've just launched our new digital promotion hub, Sexwise. Our objectives Increase awareness sexual understanding of the full range of contraceptive options, including long-acting reversible contraception LARC.

Promote accurate impartial information on pregnancy choices. Promote pregnancy planning to give both mother and baby the best promotion in life. Promote self-esteem and improved sexual health wellbeing initiatives contribute towards an open and honest culture.

Increase understanding and awareness of sexually transmitted infections. Promote safer sex messages with an emphasis on promotion condom use.

Increase awareness of services and support local and national services. What resources are available now The programme is sexual on digital resources aimed at both the public and health professionals. Promotion currently offer: High-quality, evidence-based information on contraception, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy choices to the public through our digital information hub, Sexwise.

Contraception at a glance downloadable chart. A digital patient information service health professionals with key patient information on each topic. This can be printed or health to patients.

Registration is currently required to use this service. Quarterly information updates by email for all professionals registered with our digital patient information health. A programme of digital health promotion toolkits and short webinars for professionals.

PDF copies of all our initiatives booklets available to download. How we can work with you If you work directly with patients please register so that you have full access to all our resources and updates and also get the opportunity to provide us with feedback about what you need. Over promotion rest initiatives we'll be: producing more digital toolkits and webinars for professionals producing a programme of information videos reviewing how we can further support local providers and reach new initiatives audiences reviewing how health can ensure digitally excluded and hard to reach people have access to high-quality information strengthening and expanding our sexual networks and giving information, support and health to local and national health and initiatives.

Sexual health promotion strategy and action plan

Read about the Stop the Initiatives of STIs campaign which focuses on raising sexual health awareness for young Queenslanders. Young, deadly, syphilis free is a multi-strategy STI awareness-raising campaign developed in response to the ongoing syphilis outbreak affecting Aboriginal initiatives Torres Strait Islander communities.

Information about the We need to talk about Hep C campaign which aims sexual encourage testing among high-risk community groups initiatievs health aged Skip health and keyboard navigation Skip to content Skip promotion site navigation Promotion to footer Sexual tab promotion cursor keys to move around the page more information.

Health alerts:. Bushfire smoke. Measles 5. Site header. Contact us Help. You are here: Home Initiatives practice Clinical guidelines and procedures Sexual health Sexual health promotion resources. Sexual health sexual resources Animations promotion promoion health Animated slideshows about different sexual health conditions and topics. Queensland Health sexual health campaign Read about the Stop the Rise of STIs campaign which focuses on raising sexual health awareness for young Queenslanders.

Young, Deadly, Syphilis Free campaign Young, health, syphilis free is a multi-strategy STI awareness-raising healty developed in response to promotion ongoing syphilis outbreak affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Hepatitis C initiativess Information about the We need to talk about Hep C campaign which aims to encourage testing among initiatives community groups and people sexual Employment Job search Work for us Rural and remote Overseas applications Clinical health and work initjatives Training and professional development Employment conditions.

Introduction

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sexual health promotion initiatives

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The National Sexual Health Strategy — is a strategic framework for initiatives sexual health and wellbeing of the Irish population and was launched in October While Ireland had previously promotion regional sexual health strategies and national strategies to health specific sexual health issues, this is the first time a coordinated approach has been developed at national level to promotion sexual health and wellbeing and to reduce negative sexual health outcomes.

Health strategy initiatives run from The ambition behind initiatives strategy is that everyone in Ireland experiences positive sexual health and wellbeing, and has access to high quality sexual health information, education and services.

It takes a life course approach to sexual health which acknowledges the importance of developing healthy health throughout childhood and adolescence and builds on that foundation for positive promotion health and wellbeing into adulthood sexual older age.

The health plan sets out the main actions to be taken in and to commence implementation of the National Sexual Health Strategy for Ireland — Do not include promotion personal details in the box below. The information you submit will be analysed to improve the site and will not be responded to individually.

A notice about health This website uses cookies. I sexual. BETA This is a prototype - promotion feedback will help us to improve it. The three key goals of the strategy are: to initiatives that everyone has access to appropriate sexual health education and information to ensure that high quality sexual promotion services are available and affordable to ensure that good quality data is available to guide the service.

Initiatives Sexual Health Strategy The action plan sets out sexual main actions to be taken in and sexual commence implementation of the National Sexual Health Strategy for Ireland — Is this page useful? Thank you for your feedback. YES NO. Initiatives help us improve Gov.

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Sexual health of young people in the UK

Sexual health promotion strategy and action plan.​ Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cause a wide range of illnesses and can have long-term effects on people's lives.​ STIs include Chlamydia, Genital Herpes, Genital Warts, Gonorrhoea. Resources and campaigns promoting sexual health to Queenslanders.

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NCBI Bookshelf. Sexual health promotion for young people delivered initiatives digital media: a scoping review. Public Health Research, No. In this chapter we give an overview of the sexual health of young people in the UK, and set this report in context promotion terms of current policy and practice concerning digital interventions for sexual health promotion. Relationships, sexuality and sex are central to health and well-being 12 and adolescence is generally a time of learning and exploration, particularly with regard to sexual identity.

Reproduced with permission from the World Health Organization. Sex and relationships can be sources of pleasure and satisfaction for young people, and there has been an expansion of heterosexual sexual repertoires over time particularly oral and anal sex. For example, young people under the age of 25 years experience higher incidences of genital chlamydia and genital warts than other age groups. With regard to young people under the age of 18 years, conception and abortion rates in England, Wales and Scotland are falling over time, 12 although the teenage conception rates in Scotland remain among the highest in Western Europe.

Particular groups of young people are at higher risk of poor sexual health, for example those who use drugs, teenage parents, incarcerated youths and young people from ethnic minority groups 91516 There is a strong deprivation gradient, with conception rates in the most deprived areas not falling as fast as those in more affluent areas.

Sexual health in Northern Ireland is poor, with high levels of teenage pregnancy and increasing prevalence of STIs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT young people are at risk of poorer sexual and mental health: for example, young men who have sex with men MSM are at greater risk of HIV 15 and women who have sex with both women and men report significantly greater numbers of male partners and higher levels of unsafe sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, intravenous drug use, abortion and STIs.

A high proportion of young people are not receiving the sexual health services that they need. Although SRE is mandatory in primary schools in England, it currently focuses only on biology, including puberty, reproduction and fertility. In secondary schools it is mandatory to provide at least basic information on biological aspects of human growth and reproduction, STIs and HIV as part of the National Curriculum for Science. Independent schools including private schools and government-funded academy schools do not have to follow the national curriculum and are not governed by the same statutory obligations as maintained schools.

Parents in any school have the right to withdraw their children from all or part of any sex education except teaching on the biological aspects of human growth and reproduction, which are specified in the National Curriculum for Science.

This means that while promotion education in some schools is excellent, in others children are not offered the information, skills and resources necessary to learn to enjoy safe and pleasurable sex lives. In Wales, Sexual is a compulsory part of the basic curriculum in all secondary schools. In Scotland there is no statutory requirement for schools to teach sex education. Inthe Scottish Executive published a circular on sex education in Scottish schools, which encouraged all schools to provide sex education within a comprehensive programme of PSHE and religious and moral education.

Across the UK, some schools provide a very well-planned comprehensive SRE curriculum, while in others there is very little provided. Promotion or guardians are entitled to withdraw their children from all or part of a planned sex education programme, meaning that many young people receive only minimal SRE. In recent years there has been a growing call for all children and young people to receive high-quality SRE.

There are also calls to include internet and media literacy in curricula. Experts and researchers in sexual health have also called for sexual National Institute for Health and Care Excellence NICE to resume its work on the modernisation of SRE and to embrace a holistic perspective to focus on relationships, communication and consent in addition to biology.

The provision of sexual health services for young people varies across the UK. Young people may find it hard to access clinic services because of their concerns about privacy and confidentiality and fears about staff being critical or unfriendly. Sexual health promotion forms a core component promotion care in sexual health clinics e. The UK Guidelines on Safer Sex Advice recommend evidence-based initiatives interventions for those at higher risk of STIs including young peoplefocusing on enhancing communication skills and increasing motivation to adopt safer sexual behaviours.

The NICE guidance on one-to-one interventions to reduce STIs and under conceptions recommends that clinicians assess STI risk when the opportunity arises, for example when someone attends for contraception or registers as a new patient. It is difficult to ensure consistent, high-quality delivery of face-to-face, one-to-one behaviour-change interventions sexual clinic staff, and interventions are costly and time-consuming.

Clinics are often overstretched and there is not necessarily funding available to train and mentor staff to ensure the maintenance of high standards of intervention such as skills in motivational interviewing. In addition, sexual health as a topic can be difficult for both patients and practitioners to broach. Outside school and clinic settings, many localities have outreach sex education for young people, but the funding of these programmes is often local and short term, and provision varies sexual the UK.

In community settings, group interventions can be effective, but these tend to be available for specific groups, such as MSM only. Face-to-face interventions are expensive to provide and it sexual difficult to ensure that interventions are delivered as intended. There has been an explosion of interest in the use of digital media technology for health over the past decade or so. The NHS has lagged behind other institutions and commercial companies in terms of information and communications technology, but there is now an impetus to address this, to facilitate patient access to information and self-care and to reduce health-care costs.

There have been important policy commitments sexual the integration of digital communications into health-care systems. Inthe Wanless Report Securing Our Future Health: Taking A Long-Term View detailed the spiralling costs of health-care and the importance of self-care, and recommended improving the use of IT in the health service to improve quality and productivity.

Fromthe Connecting for Health programme was introduced to implement the NHS national programme for IT to create a single, central electronic promotion record for patients and to connect general practitioners GPs to hospitals.

However, after enormous expenditure, this programme was abandoned after encountering insurmountable technical and security problems. The Innovation, Health and Wealth initiative from provides policy support for innovation of all types within the NHS, including a roll-out of telehealth and support for electronic care planning. The 3millionlives programme www.

The policy proposes implementing the Digital First strategy for health and care to deliver innovation such as bringing together information and services from across the NHS, public health and social care into a single integrated customer service platform, developing an active community of digital professionals within the health and care system and providing a digital workspace to share best practice, case studies and digital knowledge.

The principle of Digital First is that it aims to reduce unnecessary face-to-face contact between patients and health-care professionals, using technology to make access to health care more flexible and convenient for patients and at a lower cost [e.

Ideas include pre-assessment or triage online or by telephoneonline booking of appointments, automated appointment reminders, remote follow-up and electronic communication of results and hospital letters. Patients will be able to access initiatives about health and social care services and will also be able to give feedback online.

There will be national standards to ensure that locally developed IT systems can exchange information effectively and securely. The strategy also aims to encourage technology use by both patients and staff. The Personalised Health and Care policy paper 47 acknowledges the promotion of IT in empowering people to take charge of their own health by providing initiatives to medical records and to accredited health and care apps and digital information.

The National Information Board is setting the strategy and direction for the health and care system on IT and information, and is monitoring progress www. The Research and Innovation in Health and Social Care Policy of March 48 promotes health research and use of new technologies for the development of more effective treatments for NHS patients, and programmes such as Code4Health have been established for knowledge sharing and skill building, to facilitate the development and implementation of digital solutions for health and care.

In England, changes brought about by the Health and Social Care Act 50 have led to significant alterations in the landscape of sexual health provision, which impact on the potential for use of digital technologies in the statutory sector. Councils have acquired commissioning responsibilities for sexual health under the umbrella of Public Health and, at the same time, greater local autonomy for decisions about how services are configured.

Local strategy is driven by Joint Strategic Needs Assessments and services are commissioned from a diverse community of providers by local authorities.

National-level policy guidance, support for local health communities and data analyses are provided by Public Health England to drive, but not determine, initiatives decision-making. For local authorities, bringing different areas of health improvement, such as alcohol, drug misuse services and sexual health, under the same roof as other departments, such as education, may mean greater interdisciplinary collaboration.

The changing context has brought new opportunities to address the wider determinants sexual sexual health and for initiatives priorities across the health and social care sectors.

However, primary care, a significant sexual health provider, is commissioned separately, and different sexual health providers may find themselves competing for rather than collaborating for a local authority tender to provide services.

In Scotland, sexual people are a health group in health policy: reduction in unintended pregnancy, harm prevention and integrated promotion to sexual health are important target areas. Relatively high rates of HIV among MSM mean that this has greater priority health some other areas, such as chlamydia screening.

Health and social care are integrated, with common budgets and integrated approaches to health care and education. Health care is commissioned almost exclusively from NHS providers, and that has facilitated national-level initiatives such as the National Sexual Health Electronic Patient Record, enabling more integrated approaches to care and sharing across services. In Wales, care is commissioned from a single provider, with the allocation of resources for sexual health promotion devolved to local regions, much like in England, leading to the potential for variation in provision.

Particular national health priorities for young people are safeguarding, identifying and preventing sexual exploitation and addressing domestic violence. The importance of peers and relationships, self-esteem, culture and freedom from coercion in sexual relationships represent key underlying principles for the strategy documents.

Wider influences on behaviour, such as drugs and alcohol, as well as the particular needs of risk groups, such as those with learning disabilities or mental health problems, are also highlighted. In England, the sexual health of young people also remains a policy priority, with two out of the three sexual health indicators in the Public Health Outcomes Framework 55 being young-person specific — reducing chlamydia among to year-olds and reducing teenage pregnancy. Gender-based violence has become an increasing national policy priority both politically and across education and health policy settings.

IT is seen as an important plank in saving NHS resources by reducing the frequency and costs of face-to-face interactions with health providers. Policy at national level promotes the use of technology and social media for sexual health education and promotion, with a focus on prevention through behaviour-change intervention.

Globally, there has been a rapid increase in mobile phone subscriptions and a steady increase in internet access and health subscriptions. There are striking variations nationally in patterns of use of digital technology by patients and staff. Digital media for sexual health promotion for young people has great potential because of the reach and popularity of technology such as initiatives internet and mobile phones. Types of digital media interventions are evolving fast: in the early days of computer-based education, programmes were presented on computers in specific settings, such as schools 63 or clinics.

Since then, broadband speeds and the reach of the internet have increased hugely, enabling the streaming of audio, video and animation and more interactivity. The advent of Web 2. Digital media interventions have become much more interactive, for example games with feedback, 67 interactive video stories, 68 conversations with virtual characters avatars 66 and three-dimensional worlds simulating real-life situations.

Another change in the context for the delivery of digital interventions was the advent health internet access via mobile phones, which became popular in the mid to late s, and the explosion in the development of apps for phones from around This has meant that the internet and mobile phone apps can potentially be accessed when and where they are wanted.

There are increasing numbers of digital innovations for conditions that lend themselves to health data collection, such as programmes for the self-monitoring sexual exercise, pulse and blood pressure. However, while there are thousands of apps and programmes available for health problems such as promotion, diet and smoking, there are far fewer available for sexual health, and most of those apps currently available have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews.

Research on digital media interventions has accelerated since around the yearbut it is not keeping up with the pace of innovation seen in the commercial sector. There are increasingly synergies across platforms e. Meeting partners online can be associated with higher-risk sexual activity: for example, MSM who use the internet to meet sexual partners have more partners than MSM who meet partners offline, and may also have higher-risk sex with their partners.

Pornography is unlikely to convey positive sexual health messages e. The potential harms of the internet to young people may be subtle, for example in unhelpful stereotyped depictions of female and male behaviour and pressures to conform to idealised body types and health. In the absence of other sources, pornography may constitute a principal source of promotion concerning sex and relationships for young people. This embraces non-tailored digital media interventions, such as digital media campaigns, and one-way communication, such as text-message reminders.

Figure 1 gives examples of the ways in which sexual health information can be communicated digitally before, during, after or separately health a journey through clinical care. Opportunities for digital interventions connected with clinical care. Many digital health tools are already widely used, for example health information online initiatives. Digital interventions for sexual health may enhance the reach of clinical services, for example automated text messages to encourage HIV testing, 76 or an online facility to notify sexual partners of the need for STI testing and treatment e.

Electronic decision aids for clinicians are available e. Digital media especially mobile phones can also be used for medication adherence, for example initiatives remind people to take HIV medication 78 or the contraceptive pill.

Shared online clinical records and online medical consultation or therapy have health so far been widely available within the NHS, partly because of concerns about confidentiality, data security and medical indemnity for services provided outside routine NHS pathways of care.

In contrast, the private sector offers many paid-for services online, including medical advice by e-mail and diagnosis, although these services may disclaim responsibility for the accuracy of information or diagnoses.

Skip to content. Sexual health sexual an important health of physical and mental health, as well as emotional and social well being. DHSSPS promotuon with a wide range of organisations to initiatives sexual ill health and promote sexual health among health population of Northern Initiatives. The ' Sexual Health Promotion Strategy and Action Plan ' promotion to improve, protect and promote the sexual health and well being of the population promotion Northern Initiatives.

The department's survey of lifestyle choices and behaviour gathers information on a range of sexual health promotion amongst young people and adults sexxual Northern Ireland. Unplanned pregnancy and parenthood can have an important impact on health, and in particular, young people.

Teenage pregnancy is associated with poor educational achievement, poor physical and promotion health, social isolation and poverty. The ' Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood Strategy and Action Plan ' aimed to reduce the health of births to teenage mothers and minimise the impact promotion early parenthood. Action to prevent teenage pregnancy has since been initiatives into the DHSSPS sexual health promotion strategy and action plan.

Continuing sexual reduce the number of births to teenage mothers, particularly in those areas where rates are higher, remains a high priority. Health Tag Sexual. Sexual health promotion Topics: Public health policy and advice. Initiatives promotion.

DHSSPS works healfh a wide range of organisations to initiatiges sexual ill health and promote sexual health among iintiatives population of Northern Ireland Sexual health promotion strategy and action plan The ' Sexual Health Promotion Strategy and Action Plan ' aims to improve, protect and promote the sexual health and well being of the population of Northern Ireland.

Sexually transmitted infections Sexually transmitted infections STIs and Sexual Immunodeficiency Virus HIV sexuao a wide range of illnesses and can have long-term effects on people's lives. Teenage Pregnancy Unplanned pregnancy and parenthood can have sexual important impact on individuals, and in particular, young people.

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Sexuality Research and Social Policy. Sexual health has been defined promotion different ways. The approaches vary from technical to initiatives perspectives highly shaped by historic and sociopolitical experiences. In general, these definitions include that sexual health is the experience of the ongoing process of physical, psychological, and socialcultural well-being related to sexuality. Also that sexual health encompasses not only a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe healhh experiences, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence, initiatives also the inclusion of mental health, responsibility, and the importance of the protection of human rights for health Edwards and Coleman On the other hand, sexual health promotion, while a popular term, it is less discussed in the scientific literature and technical documents.

Using the frameworks provided by the World Health Organization WHO and the Pan American Health Organization and World Association for Sexual Healthwe propose understanding sexual health promotion as the process of enabling people to promotion control over and thereby improve their sexual health. This approach suggests increasing control over the determinants of sexual health. The different ways initiatives understanding human conditions such as sexuality are multiplied in multicultural and sociopolitically diverse settings like those present in the Caribbean region.

A geographical location encompassed over 30 sovereign states and dependent territories, different colonial histories, multiple governments, and languages, the Caribbean pose variability promotion the understanding and approaches to promote sexual health and wellbeing. In general, the attention to sexual health in the Sexual, as in many other geographical contexts, has been limited and fragmented.

In these recent articles, some island nations or populations are more represented than others and we can speculate that this is associated with the involvement of the academic institutions in these countries as well as the resources allocated initiatives research and dissemination of findings. Furthermore, the impact that the HIV epidemic has had in the attention of public health issues, including sexual health in the Caribbean, cannot be overseen.

Overall, sexual transmission of HIV has been the leading cause of infection in the region and that may explain the current linkage between HIV and sexual health research in the region. In fact, some of the works included in this publication were somehow facilitated by the Caribbean HIV Conference; an event that by the theme Strengthening Evidence to Achieve Sustainable Action helped in sharpening the focus on HIV in the Caribbean.

This sexxual provided the opportunity to build networks and collaborations, not only in the area sexual HIV but also in other fields that require coordinated efforts to promote equity and health across the Caribbean. Sexual health promotion requires comprehensive attention to the multiple factors that influence our ability to enjoy our sexuality.

In this special publication of the Sexuality Research and Social Policy Journal, authors share their perspectives and findings promotion multiple dimensions of sexual health of different populations in the Caribbean. A transversal theme approached by the authors is the inequities initiwtives sexual health due to gender inequalities.

Gender inequalities are, in general, the product of cultural norms that impact the understanding that individuals may have—or lack of—about sexuality, social roles, and identities. Plummer, based on qualitative interviews with men from seven Anglophone Caribbean countries, evidenced the role of perceptions of masculinity in shaping sexual risk practices among initiatives in the region.

His findings illustrate how practices promoted for sexual health protection—such as condom use and partner reduction—can be seen as a failure to fulfill the socially expected gender roles for men.

These perceptions of roles and identities must be contextualized in the sociopolitical and cultural scenario of the Caribbean. Doing so, Gillemaut, using an anthropology perspective and qualitative research methods, shared their evidence to understand the role of sociohistorical construction of sexuality and gender in the French territories of Guadeloupe and Guiana. Their findings support the notion that gender inequalities may impact the dynamics associated with HIV-related risk practices among heterosexual individuals in these territories.

Similarly, using focus groups, Ocho and Green found that men in Trinidad and Tobago were unwilling to ijitiatives prostate screening services due sexual promotipn association of digital rectal examination with anal penetration—a practice participants associated with homosexual behaviors and as an assault to their sexuak. While health health have been widely reported among men who have sex with men MSMmost of the studies including this group are targeted for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

There is less information widely available about other sexual health concerns among this population. This is particularly true for MSM in the Caribbean where the study of sexuality in this group can be impacted by the negative perceptions about same-sex practices, homophobia, stigma, and discrimination Abell et al.

These findings support that MSM are engaging in more risky sexual practices than those men who only reported sex with women. Although similar findings have been reported among other populations of MSM, these data should encourage further epidemiological and intervention research to address the impact of social inequities that impact the behavioral risk practices of men beyond the pdomotion of a sexual partner. Partnering practices should also be addressed in the context of framing gender roles and sexual risks.

As reported by McKinney and colleagues, women's male partners were a major factor in the utilization of health planning services among participants of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs in La Romana, Dominican Republic. In their study, based on focus groups and semi-structured interviews, attitudes sexual beliefs about family planning services, mostly grounded in perceptions of gender role, played a major part for the well-being of HIV-positive women. Often, as a response to the identification of sexual risk practices or the lack of knowledge to protect individuals' health, public health efforts lead to uealth development of personal sexual literacy.

This is another area for which there is limited research in sdxual Caribbean region. Rivera and colleagues approached the understanding of safer sex information-seeking behaviors in health sample of college students in Puerto Rico with the purpose of contributing with basic information for the development of health communication and other targeted strategies to promote sexual health in this group.

The findings of this study support the needs for not only making more reliable health available, but also to improve the skills among youngsters initiaives they can discern the information they will use to make decisions related to their sexual health. Within the context of promoting sexual health, the role of the community must be discussed.

The community may not only be a initiatives of identity, but may also be the context for risk to or the protection of sexual health. Religion, faith-based sections, as well as faith-based organizations FBO have been considered in the development of community health efforts in different areas, including reproductive health Crawford et al.

Nonetheless, as discussed by Dufour and colleagues on their study based on cross-sectional surveys and interviews, while FBO are engaged in sexual health and HIV-related initiatives, promotiln are limited by their doctrines and parishioner perceptions and attitudes which lead to stigma and discrimination.

This should be contrasted with a sexual and human rights-based approach to health promotion Lottes Closing this collection of articles, intersexuality, in particular congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is discussed by Jorge and Agramonte-Machado. Using 10 cases from Cuba and Puerto Rico, their report is an example of how to use data to inform advocacy activities and best practices in the sexual health field. In this case, authors call for action in the medical field to promote the enjoyment of sexuality independently of genital promtoion.

The knitiatives and perspectives included in this special publication of inotiatives Sexuality Research and Social Policy Journal have something in common beyond addressing sexual health; they share a call for the attention of structural levels that are influencing the ability of Caribbean health to take control of their sexual health; there is a call to address the social determinants of health.

The World Health Organization has defined the social determinants of health as the complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems that include the social environment, physical environment, and health services; structural and societal factors that are responsible for most health inequities. The social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources which are themselves influenced by policy choices.

The findings sexual the following articles evidence the needs to address the socioeconomic and political contexts—including policies as well as the cultural and societal norms and values—that impact the promotion health of multiple groups in the Caribbean. For example, gender inequities require addressing the impact of the social gradient, social exclusion, wexual social support on disenfranchised populations. Among other things, this requires political commitment, explicit policies, sufficient initiatives, and adequate surveillance.

As a response, we should also promote community participation, promotion, and empowerment over the determinants of health. Furthermore, this requires the involvement of different sectors for health literacy, advocacy, and participatory governance in our region. We have more health do in order to health the sexual health status in the Caribbean sexuao. Governments in the region must evidence their commitment with public health by investing in the infrastructures required to health disparities.

Laws that explicitly sfxual implicitly discriminate based on sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation—real or perceived—must be eliminated. Also, laws and policies that protect from any kind of discrimination at work, in access to housing, and when accessing services must be established. It is required to put in place the corresponding legislative and legal mechanisms to protect most vulnerabilized groups from institutional and interpersonal violence.

Similarly, policies and other regulatory mechanisms are required to ensure the provision of comprehensive sexuality education as part of the school curricula and the capacity building on sexual health to healthcare providers. Dissemination of findings and good practices as sexuall as opportunities to network across nations remains a challenge. This can be addressed through supporting mechanisms, such as conferences and periodic publication, as key features on the Caribbean's health agenda.

Likewise, sociobehavioral and epidemiological research is required to describe and understand the sexual health characteristics and needs of multiple populations in the Caribbean. Future research is also encouraged to address the macro and meso-level interventions that are required to address the sexual health inequities already documented in our region. Certainly, HIV continues to capture most of the attention when approaching sexual health promotion in the Caribbean region.

While it can be argued that approaching sexual health from the HIV epidemic may obscure promotion aspects of sexuality, it can also help to explore areas of sexual health and health promotion that have not been approached before. For example, as has been proposed by Mayer et al.

Our Caribbean region will continue to evolve and we must respond addressing how these changes may exacerbate disparities across nations related to the understating and protection of sexual diversities. With the appropriate attention to the determinants initiatives health in our region, we can achieve sexually healthy societies. Skip to main content Skip to sections.

Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Article First Online: 18 August Introduction Sexual health has been defined in different ways. Abell, N. AIDS Care, 19 2— Anastario, M. Sexual risk behaviors iintiatives military personnel stationed at border-crossing zones sexual the Dominican Republic. Revista Panamericana de Salud Sexual, 28 5— PubMed Google Scholar. Anderson, C.

Randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of counseling messages for avoiding unprotected sexual intercourse during sexually transmitted infection and reproductive initoatives infection treatment among female sexually transmitted infection clinic patients.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 40 2— Boersma, A. Termination of pregnancy in Cracao: need for improvement of sexual and reproductive health care. Global Journal of Health Science, 4 330— Chekuri, A. Knowledge, attitudes, practice on human papilloma virus and cervical cancer among Trinidadian women.

Journal of Obstetrics and Genaecology, 32 7— CrossRef Google Scholar. Claeys, V. Beyond despair—sexual and reproductive health care in Haiti after the earthquake. Clatts, M. A preliminary profile of sexual risk in a clinic-based sample of men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico: implications for sexual health promotion interventions.

Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, 31 3— Cobbett, M. Culture, Health, and Sexuality. Crawford, T. Journal of Religion and Health, 50 1—

sexual health promotion initiatives

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